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Articles from Americas
Wednesday, October 15, 2008
Career Guidance: A Resource Handbook for Low and Middle Income Countries
By iccdppadm @ 1:58 AM :: 12955 Views :: 3 Comments :: :: Developing Countries, Americas, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Africa, Middle East, International Labour Organisation (ILO), Co-ordination and Leadership

The dual purpose of this ILO (International Labour Organisation) Handbook is: (1) to focus the attention of policy-makers and programme administrators in low- and middle-income countries upon the core issues in the reform of career guidance services in those countries; and (2) to provide programme planners and practitioners at the national and local levels with a wide variety of country examples and practical career guidance tools to use as models for possible adaptation and use. The Handbook is divided into two parts to address each of these objectives.

Part I first reviews current international trends in career guidance in high-income countries and comments on the relevance of these trends in low- and middle-income countries. Second, a framework is presented of six key elements to be taken into account in the development of a career guidance system. These elements are: (1) understanding the country context; (2) development of career information; (3) promotion of work choice, search and maintenance skills development; (4) organization of service delivery; (5) staff development to support service delivery; and (6) improvement of governance and coordination. Third, the Handbook integrates a number of illustrative country practices into the discussion of each of the six key elements. These practices also stand on their own as applicable lessons in real-life solutions to public policy challenges.

Part II of the Handbook indicates specific career guidance Internet web sites. These comprise:

(1) an inventory of career guidance tools and resources available on the Internet from a variety of high-, middle- and low-income countries; and (2) more general references, such as international competency standards for career guidance professionals and standards for career information development. Career guidance information and skills development tools on the Internet have proliferated in the last ten years, and the accessibility to this information by an international audience provides a window on current practices worldwide.

Particular attention is given to including resources currently in use in low- and middle-income countries

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Wednesday, October 15, 2008
Public Policies for Career Development: Case Studies and Emerging Issues in Developing and Transition Economies
By iccdppadm @ 1:26 AM :: 15602 Views :: 2 Comments :: :: Public Policy, Europe, Americas, South Asia, Africa, World Bank, Co-ordination and Leadership, Chile, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Turkey

This report summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective policies in career guidance and counseling; to identify emerging examples of best practice, and suggest how such countries can form more effective policies and programs in this field; and to assist the World Bank and other development agencies in determining how they can best assist such efforts.  World Bank client countries are often faced with distinctive issues. These include limited public resources, high unemployment and poverty, large informal economies, need for community capacity building, and at times specific family and cultural factors which may have a major impact on career decision-making.


Current career guidance provision in the seven case-study countries is reviewed in terms of five main sectors: schools; tertiary education; public employment services; employer-based services; and the private and voluntary sectors. This provision reflects a traditional policy rationale in which career guidance is viewed in somewhat institutional and reactive terms, as a measure designed to lubricate the operation of the education system and its relationship to the labor market, and to combat such phenomena as unemployment or mismatch.


There are however signs of a more dynamic and proactive policy rationale emerging in middle-income countries, as is the case in developed countries. Career guidance is increasingly viewed as an integral part of a human resource development strategy designed to harness technological and economic change and enable the country to compete effectively in global markets. Under this view, career guidance has an important role to play in encouraging all individuals, including youth and adults, to engage in career planning and learning throughout life, so enabling them to respond more flexibly to the opportunities offered by a dynamic labor market. This view is supported by changing concepts of career development. It requires extending access to career guidance services, constructing more of these services on a self-help basis, strengthening career and educational information resources, and improving staffing in a more differentiated form.

Based on this analysis of the case-studies, four general conclusions are reached to assist middle-income countries in developing services. First, provision of services needs to be viewed as a coherent system, with multiple stakeholders developing different elements of service delivery. Second, governments have a key role in developing the services, but should not be viewed as sole providers. Third, restrictions on public resources require priorities to be established: these include an initial focus on improving career and educational information, followed by investing in self-help services, exploiting the use of information and communications technology, improving staff training, and developing incentives to encourage the private and NGO sectors to develop and deliver services. Finally, an evidence base of client demand, service cost, and service impact needs to be developed to defend investments.

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Wednesday, August 06, 2008
By iccdppadm @ 7:39 AM :: 11354 Views :: 1 Comments :: :: Americas, Expanding Access to Guidance, Co-ordination and Leadership, Spain

This document describes proposals for the development of career guidance provision in the autonomous region of Andalucia in Spain. They include proposals for a local network of guidance providers to make the services more transparent and accessible for citizens.

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Wednesday, August 06, 2008
By iccdppadm @ 7:26 AM :: 13476 Views :: 2 Comments :: :: Americas, Expanding Access to Guidance, Co-ordination and Leadership, Spain

This document outlines proposals for the development of career guidance provision in the autonomous region of Aragon in Spain.

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Wednesday, August 06, 2008
By iccdppadm @ 7:05 AM :: 14788 Views :: 0 Comments :: Public Policy, OECD, Americas, European Commission (EC), Co-ordination and Leadership, Portugal

O guia fundamenta-se em revisões internacionais sobre políticas e práticas da Orientação, efectuadas pela OCDE, pelo Centro Europeu para o Desenvolvimento da Formação Profissional (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training - CEDEFOP), pela Fundação para a Formação Europeia (European Training Foundation - ETF) e pelo Banco Mundial. Numa linguagem simples e clara, apresenta aos decisores políticos e aos técnicos nos campos da educação, da formação e do emprego:

• desafios que enfrentam ao procurar assegurar que os serviços de Orientação Escolar e

Profissional correspondam aos objectivos das políticas públicas;

• perguntas que devem fazer a si próprios na procura de resposta a esses desafios;

• algumas das opções possíveis quanto a medidas de política visando a oferta da

Orientação, numa perspectiva de aprendizagem ao longo da vida e de empregabilidade

activa; e

• alguns exemplos de respostas eficientes, delineadas pelos países da OCDE e da União


O guia incide em quatro amplos domínios de acção: promover a Orientação Escolar e Profissional em jovens; promover a Orientação em adultos; promover o acesso à Orientação; e promover políticas e sistemas de apoio à Orientação.

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Wednesday, August 06, 2008
ORIENTACION PROFESIONAL: Guia para responsables politicos
By iccdppadm @ 6:46 AM :: 14613 Views :: 0 Comments :: Public Policy, OECD, Americas, European Commission (EC), Co-ordination and Leadership, Spain
Esta guía esta basada en estudios internacionales sobre políticas de orientación profesional llevados a cabo por la OCDE, por el Centro Europeo para el Desarrollo de la Formación Profesional, por la Fundación Europea para la Formación y por el Banco Mundial. Escrita con un lenguaje claro y sencillo, ofrece a los responsables políticos en temas de educación, formación y empleo:
·         los desafíos a los que se enfrentan para asegurarse que los servicios de orientación profesional puedan responder a los objetivos de las políticas públicas;
·         las preguntas que necesitan formularse para responder a esos desafíos;
·         algunas de las opciones que pueden adoptarse para ofrecer orientación profesional dentro de un marco de aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida y empleo activo; y
·         algunos ejemplos de respuestas eficaces extraídas de los países de la Unión Europea y de la OCDE.
La guía cubre cuatro amplios temas políticos: Mejorar la orientación profesional para los jóvenes; Mejorar la orientación profesional para los adultos; Mejorar el acceso a la orientación profesional; Mejorar los sistemas que apoyan a la orientación profesional.
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Tuesday, December 18, 2007
Recognising Community Based Career and Employment Services
By iccdppadm @ 2:56 PM :: 13119 Views :: 2 Comments :: :: Public Policy, Assessing Effectiveness, Americas, Canada, Expanding Access to Guidance

Brisish Columbia finds itself at a crossroads concerning supply driven and demand driven careers and employment services according to a document prepared by the Social and Planning Research Council of British Columbia for ASPECT and for the British Columbia Career and Workforce Alliance. A booming economy has led to skills shortages and the need for demand driven career and employment services. The overall policy context is that from 2007 there is full devolution of labour market funding and responsibilities from federal to provincial level (including British Columbia) with a new Labour Market Development Agreement to be negotiated.

Evaluations of supply driven career and employment programmes and services in 2001showed the lack of a strong connection to employers and employment. Demand driven services also have limitations especially as they have narrowly defined economic goals and a limited set of indicators for effective programme delivery. Neither do they address the issue of persistent unemployment for particular sections of the population. The authors argue the need for a comprehensive approach involving supply and demand driven approaches with a significant focus on skills development. Cost - Benefit Analysis should have appropriate and complete measures embracing measures of employment and earnings as well as social development indicators.

The document provides advice on best practice in careers and employment service delivery and on labour market policy evaluation. They advocate the use of local and community based guidance provision than the use of large private non-local and international firms to deliver the service. 

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Tuesday, December 18, 2007
Making the Case: Demonstrating the Impact of Careers Services by Roberta Neault and Deirdre Pickell
By iccdppadm @ 2:44 PM :: 10827 Views :: 20 Comments :: :: Assessing Effectiveness, Americas, Canada
This 4 page briefing document published by the British Columbia Career and Workforce Development Alliance calls on the career and employment services sector in that province to take an interest in demonstrating the impact of careers services, programmes and interventions. It strongly advocates the use of the Canadian Research Work Group (CRWG)Framework on evidence based practice in career development (see this document on this web site- open the section on Policy and Research and scroll down to Assessing Effectiveness; also visit the Assessing Effectiveness Forum for an inspiring article on measuring impact by Stu Conger and Bryan Hiebert).
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