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Articles from South Asia
Wednesday, October 15, 2008
Orientacion Profesional: Un Manual de recursos para paises de bajos y medianos ingresos
By iccdppadm @ 2:13 AM :: 14117 Views :: 0 Comments :: Developing Countries, Americas, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Africa, International Labour Organisation (ILO), Co-ordination and Leadership

El doble propósito de este OIT (Oficina Internacional de Trabajo) Manual es: (1) focalizar la atención hacia quienes formulan políticasy administran programas en países de bajos y medianos ingresos (PBMI) sobre los temas básicos de la reforma de los servicios de orientación profesional en dichos países; y (2) brindar a los planificadores y especialistas de los programas a nivel nacional y local una amplia variedad de ejemplos de diferentes países y herramientas prácticas de orientación profesional para emplear como modelos para su posible adaptación y uso. El Manual se divide en dos partes que abordan cada uno de estos objetivos.

La primera parte comienza con una revisión de las tendencias internacionales actuales en materia de orientación profesional en los países de altos ingresos y comenta acerca de la pertinencia de esas tendencias en países de bajos y medianos ingresos. En segundo lugar, se presenta un marco de seis elementos clave que deben considerarse en el desarrollo de un sistema de orientación profesional. Estos elementos son: (1) comprensión del contexto de país; (2) desarrollo de la información profesional; (3) promoción de la elección, búsqueda y mantenimiento del trabajo; (4) organización de la oferta de servicios; (5) desarrollo del personal para apoyar la prestación de servicios; y (6) mejoramiento de la gobernabilidad y la coordinación. En tercer lugar, el Manual integra varias prácticas ilustrativas de países en el debate de cada uno de los seis elementos clave. Estas prácticas también sirven por sí solas como lecciones aplicables en la búsqueda de soluciones en la vida real a los desafíos de las políticas públicas.

La segunda parte del Manual indica sitios web específicos de Internet sobre la orientación profesional. Estos sitios incluyen: (1) un inventario de las herramientas y recursos sobre orientación profesional disponibles en Internet de diversos países de altos, medianos y bajos ingresos; y (2) referencias más generales, tales como las normas de competencia internacionales para especialistas de la orientación profesional y normas para el desarrollo de información profesional. La información sobre orientación profesional y las herramientas para el desarrollo de competencias en Internet han proliferado durante los últimos diez años y la accesibilidad a esta información por parte de un público internacional proporciona una ventana sobre las prácticas actuales a nivel mundial. Se pone particular atención en la inclusión de recursos en uso en la actualidad en los países de bajos y medianos ingresos.

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Wednesday, October 15, 2008
Career Guidance: A Resource Handbook for Low and Middle Income Countries
By iccdppadm @ 1:58 AM :: 12936 Views :: 3 Comments :: :: Developing Countries, Americas, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Africa, Middle East, International Labour Organisation (ILO), Co-ordination and Leadership

The dual purpose of this ILO (International Labour Organisation) Handbook is: (1) to focus the attention of policy-makers and programme administrators in low- and middle-income countries upon the core issues in the reform of career guidance services in those countries; and (2) to provide programme planners and practitioners at the national and local levels with a wide variety of country examples and practical career guidance tools to use as models for possible adaptation and use. The Handbook is divided into two parts to address each of these objectives.

Part I first reviews current international trends in career guidance in high-income countries and comments on the relevance of these trends in low- and middle-income countries. Second, a framework is presented of six key elements to be taken into account in the development of a career guidance system. These elements are: (1) understanding the country context; (2) development of career information; (3) promotion of work choice, search and maintenance skills development; (4) organization of service delivery; (5) staff development to support service delivery; and (6) improvement of governance and coordination. Third, the Handbook integrates a number of illustrative country practices into the discussion of each of the six key elements. These practices also stand on their own as applicable lessons in real-life solutions to public policy challenges.

Part II of the Handbook indicates specific career guidance Internet web sites. These comprise:

(1) an inventory of career guidance tools and resources available on the Internet from a variety of high-, middle- and low-income countries; and (2) more general references, such as international competency standards for career guidance professionals and standards for career information development. Career guidance information and skills development tools on the Internet have proliferated in the last ten years, and the accessibility to this information by an international audience provides a window on current practices worldwide.

Particular attention is given to including resources currently in use in low- and middle-income countries

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Wednesday, October 15, 2008
Public Policies for Career Development: Case Studies and Emerging Issues in Developing and Transition Economies
By iccdppadm @ 1:26 AM :: 15570 Views :: 2 Comments :: :: Public Policy, Europe, Americas, South Asia, Africa, World Bank, Co-ordination and Leadership, Chile, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Turkey

This report summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective policies in career guidance and counseling; to identify emerging examples of best practice, and suggest how such countries can form more effective policies and programs in this field; and to assist the World Bank and other development agencies in determining how they can best assist such efforts.  World Bank client countries are often faced with distinctive issues. These include limited public resources, high unemployment and poverty, large informal economies, need for community capacity building, and at times specific family and cultural factors which may have a major impact on career decision-making.


Current career guidance provision in the seven case-study countries is reviewed in terms of five main sectors: schools; tertiary education; public employment services; employer-based services; and the private and voluntary sectors. This provision reflects a traditional policy rationale in which career guidance is viewed in somewhat institutional and reactive terms, as a measure designed to lubricate the operation of the education system and its relationship to the labor market, and to combat such phenomena as unemployment or mismatch.


There are however signs of a more dynamic and proactive policy rationale emerging in middle-income countries, as is the case in developed countries. Career guidance is increasingly viewed as an integral part of a human resource development strategy designed to harness technological and economic change and enable the country to compete effectively in global markets. Under this view, career guidance has an important role to play in encouraging all individuals, including youth and adults, to engage in career planning and learning throughout life, so enabling them to respond more flexibly to the opportunities offered by a dynamic labor market. This view is supported by changing concepts of career development. It requires extending access to career guidance services, constructing more of these services on a self-help basis, strengthening career and educational information resources, and improving staffing in a more differentiated form.

Based on this analysis of the case-studies, four general conclusions are reached to assist middle-income countries in developing services. First, provision of services needs to be viewed as a coherent system, with multiple stakeholders developing different elements of service delivery. Second, governments have a key role in developing the services, but should not be viewed as sole providers. Third, restrictions on public resources require priorities to be established: these include an initial focus on improving career and educational information, followed by investing in self-help services, exploiting the use of information and communications technology, improving staff training, and developing incentives to encourage the private and NGO sectors to develop and deliver services. Finally, an evidence base of client demand, service cost, and service impact needs to be developed to defend investments.

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Friday, February 01, 2008
Orientation professionnelle et politique publique: comment combler l'écart OECD (2004)
By iccdppadm @ 12:46 PM :: 15165 Views :: 2 Comments :: :: Public Policy, OECD, Europe, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Co-ordination and Leadership, France

Cette publication présente les résultats d’un examen des politiques d’orientation professionnelle entrepris à partir du début de l’année 2001 dans 14 pays de l’OCDE sur deux continents. Il s’agissait de voir comment l’organisation, la gestion et le fonctionnement des services d’orientation professionnelle pouvaient contribuer à la réalisation de certains objectifs essentiels des politiques publiques. Il a porté en particulier sur la manière dont ces services peuvent aider les pays à progresser dans la voie de l’apprentissage tout au long de la vie et à mettre en oeuvre des politiques actives d’emploi.

Il s’est intéressé aux services d’orientation qui se situent tout au long de la vie et qui s’adressent aussi bien aux adultes et au troisième âge qu’aux jeunes. Il étudie ces services dans des contextes très variés : l’enseignement obligatoire, le deuxième cycle secondaire, l’enseignement tertiaire, les services locaux, le service public de l’emploi et l’entreprise. Il prend également en compte de manière très large les acteurs de l’orientation, non seulement les administrations, mais aussi les employeurs, les syndicats, les organisations locales, les institutions éducatives, les parents, les élèves/étudiants et les praticiens de l’orientation.

Les analyses de l’examen portent sur quatre questions principales :

  • Pourquoi l’orientation professionnelle a-t-elle une importance pour les politiques publiques? (chapitres 1 à 2) 
  • Comment l’orientation peut-elle être organisée plus efficacement ? (chapitres 3 à 6).
  • Quelles ressources faut-il affecter à l’orientation ? (chapitres 7 et 8)
  • Comment améliorer les politiques publiques (chapitres 9 et 10)




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Friday, February 01, 2008
Career Guidance and Public Policy: Bridging the Gap - OECD (2004)
By iccdppadm @ 3:23 AM :: 16400 Views :: 1 Comments :: :: Public Policy, OECD, Europe, South Asia, Asia Pacific, Co-ordination and Leadership

This publication reports the findings of a review that was begun in early 2001 of career guidance policies in 14 OECD countries in two continents. It has looked at how the organisation, management and delivery of career guidance can assist countries to advance lifelong learning goals, and at how career guidance can help in the implementation of active labour market policies.

The review focused on career guidance services throughout the lifespan: for young people; for adults; and for the "third age". It examined career guidance services in a wide range of settings: compulsory schooling; upper secondary education; tertiary education; community settings; public employment services; and the workplace. It also examined the role of a broad range of stakeholder of career guidance services: governments, employers, trade unions, community organisations, educational institutions, parents, students, and career guidance practitioners.

The findings of the review are organised around four main questions:

  • Why does career guidance matter for public policy? (chapters 1 and 2)
  • How can career guidance be delivered more effectively? (chapters 3 to 6)
  • How should career guidance be resourced? (chapters 7 and 8)
  • How can strategic leadership be improved? (chapters 9 and 10)
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