Using data from longitudinal studies (Australia, Denmark, and Switzerland) and other research, this working paper examines five aspects of the career learning thinking and behaviours of teenagers:
Career certainty (definiteness of career plan)
Career alignment (education plans matching occupational aspirations)
Career ambition (high expectations for study and jobs)
Instrumental motivation (understands the long-term benefits of education)
Career concentration (aspiring to less popular jobs)
and explores the impact of such characteristics (indicators) on future outcomes such as transitions to employment, and job status and income achieved.
It provides examples of career learning activities that can assist in the further development of such characteristics: career counselling; the use of interest questionnaires; employer engagement; and simulated recruitment activities.